Monoglycerides (also: acylglycerols or monoacylglycerols) are a class of glycerides which are composed of a molecule of glycerol linked to a fatty acid via an ester bond. As glycerol contains both primary and secondary alcohol groups two different types of monoglycerides may be formed; 1-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is attached to a primary alcohol, or a 2-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is attached to the secondary alcohol.
Monoglycerides are produced both biologically and industrially. They are naturally present at very low levels (0.1-0.2%) in some seed oils such as olive oil, rapeseed oil and cottonseed oil. They are biosynthesized by the enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and the enzymatic hydrolysis of diglycerides by diacylglycerol lipase; or as an intermediate in the alkanoylation of glycerol to form fats. Several monoglycerides are pharmacologically active (e.g. 2-oleoylglycerol, 2-arachidonoylglycerol).
Industrial production is primarily achieved by a glycerolysis reaction between triglycerides and glycerol. The commercial raw materials for the production of monoacylglycerols may be either vegetable oils or animal fats.
Monoglycerides are mainly used as emulsion stabilizers in the food industry.
Its application range is very wide. It can be used in cake oil, cream, coffee mate, ice cream, cold food, liquid and solid beverages, dairy products, toffee, caramel, fruit candy, Chocolate, bread, biscuits, peanut/walnut/bean/sesame/coconut butter (milk), meat products, rice noodle products, spicy food and other foods.
The following are the usage and dosage of molecularly distilled monoglycerides in some common foods.
Application in candy
Molecularly distilled monoglycerides are widely used in candies to enhance and improve the quality of candies with their characteristics of oil resistance, shape retention, gloss enhancement, crystallization inhibition, viscosity reduction, enhancement of mouthfeel and softness, etc.
Molecularly distilled monoglycerides are used in candy and chocolate. They can easily disperse fats, reduce slurry viscosity and sugar crystallinity, and improve product edible quality. The added amount is 1.5%-2.0% of the total fat.
Molecularly distilled monoglycerides are used in chewing gum base, which can reduce the viscosity, increase the plasticity of the gum base, and prevent the product from sticking to the teeth. The addition amount is 0.30%-0.50% of the total gum base.
Application in ice cream
Molecularly distilled monoglyceride is the most ideal emulsifier and stabilizer for making high-quality ice cream. Molecularly distilled monoglycerides are used in ice cream to prevent the formation of large ice crystals, increase the delicate and smooth taste, and improve shape retention and stability. The addition amount is 0.10%-0.30% of the total amount of materials.
Application in dairy products and beverages
Molecularly distilled monoglycerides have been widely used in dairy products and beverages, and have the functions of emulsification, dispersing and moisturizing, foaming, solubilization, and antibacterial.
Molecularly distilled monoglycerides are used in protein beverages, which can improve the stability of fat and protein and prevent stratification and precipitation. The addition amount is 0.05%-0.10% of the total amount of materials.
Molecularly distilled monoglycerides are used to formulate milk, which can improve the stability of fat and protein and prevent stratification and precipitation. The addition amount is 0.10%-0.30% of the total amount of materials.