It is an inorganic compound derived from naturally occurring minerals and existing in two types:
- anhydrous with the chemical formula Ca(H2PO4)2
- monohydrate the commonly form and with the chemical formula Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O
Usually, it is produced by the reaction of calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate with phosphoric acid. Food grade phosphoric acid is made from phosphate rocks by two main methods, a wet process or an electrothermal process.
- In the wet process: phosphate rock is digested with a mineral acid, usually sulfuric acid, but nitric or hydrochloric acids may also be used.
- In the electrothermal process: the phosphate rock, coke and silica are heated in an electric resistance furnace to more than 1,100°C to extract elemental phosphorus from the ore. The elemental phosphorus is then oxidised to P4O10 (phosphorus pentoxide) and subsequently hydrated and the mist is collected
MCP food grade is used as an acid component in baking powder; feed grade as a nutrition supplement of calcium and phosphorus in animal and poultry; and as a superphosphate fertilizer in agriculture.
Monocalcium phosphate is a leavening acid commonly found in baked goods. Its purpose is to react with baking soda to provide aeration and volume by releasing carbon dioxide in the presence of water. The application such as in bread, biscuits, cookies, pancakes, self-rising flour, single and double-acting baking powder.
It is also often combined with slow-acting acids such as sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum sulfate and sodium aluminum phosphate in double-acting baking powders.
Mono, di- and tricalcium phosphate are the three main types of inorganic feed phosphates. Mono and dicalcium phosphate (produced by calcined MCP at 270–350°C) are the most commonly used forms.
MCP feed grade benefits animal and poultry in both phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca):
- Calcium: firms bone tissue and skeleton.
- Phosphorus: one of the most important minerals in animal nutrition. It plays an important role in the growth and cell differentiation (DNA), metabolism of energy and protein, controlling of appetite, the efficiency of feed utilization, fertility and etc.
It supplies P and Ca nutrients to plants. It has the highest P content of dry fertilizers without nitrogen (N) which is suitable to plant that does not need additional N supplement.