Povidone (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a synthetic polymer vehicle for dispersing and suspending drugs. It has multiple uses, including as a binder for tablets and capsules, a film former for ophthalmic solutions, to aid in flavoring liquids and chewable tablets, and as an adhesive for transdermal systems.
Povidone k30 has the molecular formula of (C6H9NO)n and appears as a white to slightly off-white powder. Povidone formulations are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their ability to dissolve in both water and oil solvents. The k number refers to the mean molecular weight of the povidone. Povidones with higher K-values (i.e., k90) are not usually given by injection due to their high molecular weights. The higher molecular weights prevent excretion by the kidneys and lead to accumulation in the body. The best-known example of povidone formulations is povidone-iodine, an important disinfectant.
PVP is a versatile ingredient used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. It is acquired by a multistep synthesis that ends with polymerization of vinylpyrrolidone in aqueous solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. An extensive assortment of molecular weights, from a small number of thousand to a few million Daltons, can be achieved by scheming the degree of polymerization. PVP is extensively used in biomedical applications as a plasma substitute, binders in pharmaceutical tablets, hydrogels for wound dressings, and disinfectants. Its hygroscopic characters, film formation, and adhesion to diverse materials have made PVP broadly used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and industrial production. The interactions between the carbonyl groups of PVP and the hydroxyl group of polyphenols are well recognized. Due to these interactions PVP is used to segregate polyphenols and as a colloidal stabilizer in beers by careful removal of tannoid polyphenols. PVP formulations have been employed to fabricate preferred solution viscosity, permitting the deposition of a homogeneous coating thickness of a photoresist in the manufacture of high resolution display screens .